S7: Energy 2
- An improved multi-layer thermal model for photovoltaic modules
Giuseppe Marco Tina and Antonio Gagliano (University of Catania, Italy)
An essential task in devising photovoltaic power plant energy production capacities is based on the evaluation of a PV module thermal behavior from typical meteorological conditions in a given place. In this context up to 5 °C error in the operating temperature can be considered acceptable and so simplified single-layer models (SLM) can be adopted. In this case the PV module is approximated as a single slab with uniform thermal characteristics. On the other hand, multi-layer models (MLMs) allow not only to evaluate more precisely the PV cell temperature but also to calculate both front and back layer temperatures through at least a 3 temperatures multi-layer models (3T-MLMs). Front and back layer temperatures, especially the back layer temperature, can be measured during the operation of a PV module, so it is likely to tune on-line the thermal model and calculate very precisely the inner temperature. MLMs need to solve thermal energy balance equations between the PV module and the surrounding environments. Hence, both radiative and convective thermal fluxes ought to be calculated. This study introduces an innovative MLM, with the aim to evaluate more precisely the front and back cover superficial temperatures. The mathematical model that describes the thermal behavior of the PV module has been implemented in Matlab environment. The predicted thermal behavior of the PV modules is described and checked against measured data. The numerical results put also in evidence the uncertainties introduced by the environmental variables (ambient temperature, irradiance, wind speed) measurements.
- Techno-economical analysis of replacing Diesel propulsion with hybrid electric-wind propulsion on ferries in the Adriatic
Goran Gasparovic (UNIZG-FSB, Croatia); Branko Klarin (University of Split, FESB, Croatia)
The research presents results of analysis of 36 ferry and passenger routes on the Croatian Adriatic shore, with sail time up to 60 minutes. 19 of the routes representing 41.5% of daily mileage in the high season have been found suitable. Those lines carried 81.1% of all passengers and 87.4% of vehicles in the domestic sea transport in 2015. Detailed analysis of requirements for electrification has been conducted on one hull type and one ferry line in the Split port region. Grid requirements for shore-side charging and multiple scenarios involving Diesel, hybrid and full electric propulsion have shown potential for reduction in usage of Diesel fuel, giving the return on investment within four years, given current prices. Additionally, wind-driven component of the propulsion could further reduce energy demands in the order of 20 to 50%.
- Energy Harvester for Smart Sensors Systems
Leonardo Pantoli, Alfiero Leoni, Vincenzo Stornelli and Giuseppe Ferri (University of L’Aquila, Italy)
We present a high dynamic range and high efficiency energy harvesting system. The designed circuit is a dual band architecture able to capture the largest amount of EM radiation in the urban environment being tuned both at GSM and WiFi operating frequencies. The system handles, with a high conversion efficiency, an incoming power typically ranging from -20dBm to 20dBm and rectifies it into a DC voltage source. Test measurements of the proposed system have confirmed all expectation making the proposed solution suitable to be used in several commercial urban remote low power sensor networks applications as those for buildings monitoring.
- Energy Efficiency Combined SW Techniques on Mobiles Android OS
Luan Ruçi, Olimpjon Shurdi and Luan Karcanaj (Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania)
Energy efficiency in mobile computing, especially in the wireless data transmission involved in mobile applications, is one of the most challenges that have attracted much attention from mobile device manufacturers, mobile application and OS providers and as well network operators. Nowadays a major target of this research area is to develop cross solution for reducing the energy consumption of mobile devices while trying to maintain the device performance. If we look at the system-level power management solutions from the viewpoint of software architecture, the proposed solutions for now can be implemented on OS part, as middleware or application level or combination between any of them. Main contribution of this paper is to analyse the methodologies used in nowadays Android OS for different kind of Smartphone’s HW that could be even personalized in case of good programming knowledge.
- A Service Oriented QoS Architecture Targeting the Smart Grid World & Machine Learning Aspects
Christos Chrysoulas (University of Essex, United Kingdom); Maria Fasli (Universit of Essex, United Kingdom)
Dynamic selection of services and by extension of service providers are vital in today’s liberalized market of energy. On the other hand it is equally important for Service Providers to spot the one QoS Module that offers the best QoS level in a given cost. Type of service, response time, throughput, availability and cost, consist a basic set of attributes that should be taken into consideration when building a concrete Grid network. In the proposed QoS architecture Prosumers request services based on the aforementioned set of attributes. The Prosumer requests the service through the QoS Module. It is then the QoS Module that seeks the Service Provider that best fits the needs of the client.